Loan Defaulter – Who Dupe Banks, Why And How?
Loan Defaulter is a dreaded tag for both the lender and the borrower.
Who are the people who default on loans?
Why do they take a loan if they can’t afford to repay?
How do they get a loan in the first place?
A defaulter can be a salaried or self-employed, middle class individual or a high end customer with residences and offices in prime localities. (There are ample reports to prove this!) Defaulters could belong to any segment of society.
Could it be that defaulters just dupe banks if the outstanding runs into a few lakhs? Well, it could just as well be just a few thousands. Or it could be money taken to buy a new car or a personal loan to invest in a business. The borrower may just choose not to pay.
There could be a few genuine reasons for which a borrower may not be able to repay a loan, momentarily, or at all.
The current market crash and the resulting economic slow down have cost many people their jobs. Deprived of the means to repay, these people may not be able to pay off the loan.
Another reason could be unsound medical condition or ill-health. If an individual is confined to bed for a period of time for medical reasons or is impaired temporarily or forever.
Yet, another could be divorce. It’s common to take a joint loan with a spouse to increase the loan eligibility. And then, one fine day, the marriage busts. A study suggests that 11 out of 1, 000 marriages end up in divorce in India. If the separated partner does not have sufficient means, the loan could end up as a default.
And here is something interesting. You can default intentionally too! Yes, despite stringent lending norms, there are borrowers who default intentionally. Here’s how:
Fudging identities and forging documents – A newspaper report talks about Mandeep Singh from Panchkula who applied for a loan of Rs 7 lakhs for buying a Mahindra Scorpio. Posing as car tool-kits trader, he got the loan. He submitted a photocopy of his PAN card and an income tax return of some town in Himachal Pradesh. It was difficult for verification agency to clearly ascertain the claims. After repaying a couple of installments, it was found that the borrower was a fraud and was untraceable. All the submitted documents were fake.
Another common instance of forgery is that of a bank statement. It has been seen that potential borrowers shows a high account balance till the time the loan is through. Once done, he withdraws the amount. Salary statements and addresses seem to be on the top of the list of forgeries.
Organised rackets – If you have some hands-on experience with dealing in bank loans either as verification or sales agent of loans or credit card sales through telemarketing, you may find the Mr Hyde side of your personality planning sinister stuff. All you will need is a set of original documents (anyone’s). Don’t ever trust your friends or an agent so much that you hand over your original documents and forget about them. These documents could be misused.